% THIS IS SIGPROC-SP.TEX - VERSION 3.1 % WORKS WITH V3.2SP OF ACM_PROC_ARTICLE-SP.CLS % APRIL 2009 % % It is an example file showing how to use the 'acm_proc_article-sp.cls' V3.2SP % LaTeX2e document class file for Conference Proceedings submissions. % ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- % This .tex file (and associated .cls V3.2SP) *DOES NOT* produce: % 1) The Permission Statement % 2) The Conference (location) Info information % 3) The Copyright Line with ACM data % 4) Page numbering % --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- % It is an example which *does* use the .bib file (from which the .bbl file % is produced). % REMEMBER HOWEVER: After having produced the .bbl file, % and prior to final submission, % you need to 'insert' your .bbl file into your source .tex file so as to provide % ONE 'self-contained' source file. % % Questions regarding SIGS should be sent to % Adrienne Griscti ---> griscti@acm.org % % Questions/suggestions regarding the guidelines, .tex and .cls files, etc. to % Gerald Murray ---> murray@hq.acm.org % % For tracking purposes - this is V3.1SP - APRIL 2009 \documentclass{acm_proc_article-sp} \begin{document} \title{A Sample {\ttlit ACM} SIG Proceedings Paper in LaTeX Format\titlenote{(Does NOT produce the permission block, copyright information nor page numbering). For use with ACM\_PROC\_ARTICLE-SP.CLS. Supported by ACM.}} \subtitle{[Extended Abstract] \titlenote{A full version of this paper is available as \textit{Author's Guide to Preparing ACM SIG Proceedings Using \LaTeX$2_\epsilon$\ and BibTeX} at \texttt{www.acm.org/eaddress.htm}}} % % You need the command \numberofauthors to handle the 'placement % and alignment' of the authors beneath the title. % % For aesthetic reasons, we recommend 'three authors at a time' % i.e. three 'name/affiliation blocks' be placed beneath the title. % % NOTE: You are NOT restricted in how many 'rows' of % "name/affiliations" may appear. We just ask that you restrict % the number of 'columns' to three. % % Because of the available 'opening page real-estate' % we ask you to refrain from putting more than six authors % (two rows with three columns) beneath the article title. % More than six makes the first-page appear very cluttered indeed. % % Use the \alignauthor commands to handle the names % and affiliations for an 'aesthetic maximum' of six authors. % Add names, affiliations, addresses for % the seventh etc. author(s) as the argument for the % \additionalauthors command. % These 'additional authors' will be output/set for you % without further effort on your part as the last section in % the body of your article BEFORE References or any Appendices. \numberofauthors{8} % in this sample file, there are a *total* % of EIGHT authors. SIX appear on the 'first-page' (for formatting % reasons) and the remaining two appear in the \additionalauthors section. % \author{ % You can go ahead and credit any number of authors here, % e.g. one 'row of three' or two rows (consisting of one row of three % and a second row of one, two or three). % % The command \alignauthor (no curly braces needed) should % precede each author name, affiliation/snail-mail address and % e-mail address. Additionally, tag each line of % affiliation/address with \affaddr, and tag the % e-mail address with \email. % % 1st. author \alignauthor Ben Trovato\titlenote{Dr.~Trovato insisted his name be first.}\\ \affaddr{Institute for Clarity in Documentation}\\ \affaddr{1932 Wallamaloo Lane}\\ \affaddr{Wallamaloo, New Zealand}\\ \email{trovato@corporation.com} % 2nd. author \alignauthor G.K.M. Tobin\titlenote{The secretary disavows any knowledge of this author's actions.}\\ \affaddr{Institute for Clarity in Documentation}\\ \affaddr{P.O. Box 1212}\\ \affaddr{Dublin, Ohio 43017-6221}\\ \email{webmaster@marysville-ohio.com} % 3rd. author \alignauthor Lars Th{\o}rv{\"a}ld\titlenote{This author is the one who did all the really hard work.}\\ \affaddr{The Th{\o}rv{\"a}ld Group}\\ \affaddr{1 Th{\o}rv{\"a}ld Circle}\\ \affaddr{Hekla, Iceland}\\ \email{larst@affiliation.org} \and % use '\and' if you need 'another row' of author names % 4th. author \alignauthor Lawrence P. Leipuner\\ \affaddr{Brookhaven Laboratories}\\ \affaddr{Brookhaven National Lab}\\ \affaddr{P.O. Box 5000}\\ \email{lleipuner@researchlabs.org} % 5th. author \alignauthor Sean Fogarty\\ \affaddr{NASA Ames Research Center}\\ \affaddr{Moffett Field}\\ \affaddr{California 94035}\\ \email{fogartys@amesres.org} % 6th. author \alignauthor Charles Palmer\\ \affaddr{Palmer Research Laboratories}\\ \affaddr{8600 Datapoint Drive}\\ \affaddr{San Antonio, Texas 78229}\\ \email{cpalmer@prl.com} } % There's nothing stopping you putting the seventh, eighth, etc. % author on the opening page (as the 'third row') but we ask, % for aesthetic reasons that you place these 'additional authors' % in the \additional authors block, viz. \additionalauthors{Additional authors: John Smith (The Th{\o}rv{\"a}ld Group, email: {\texttt{jsmith@affiliation.org}}) and Julius P.~Kumquat (The Kumquat Consortium, email: {\texttt{jpkumquat@consortium.net}}).} \date{30 July 1999} % Just remember to make sure that the TOTAL number of authors % is the number that will appear on the first page PLUS the % number that will appear in the \additionalauthors section. \maketitle \begin{abstract} This paper provides a sample of a \LaTeX\ document which conforms to the formatting guidelines for ACM SIG Proceedings. It complements the document \textit{Author's Guide to Preparing ACM SIG Proceedings Using \LaTeX$2_\epsilon$\ and Bib\TeX}. This source file has been written with the intention of being compiled under \LaTeX$2_\epsilon$\ and BibTeX. The developers have tried to include every imaginable sort of ``bells and whistles", such as a subtitle, footnotes on title, subtitle and authors, as well as in the text, and every optional component (e.g. Acknowledgments, Additional Authors, Appendices), not to mention examples of equations, theorems, tables and figures. To make best use of this sample document, run it through \LaTeX\ and BibTeX, and compare this source code with the printed output produced by the dvi file. \end{abstract} % A category with the (minimum) three required fields \category{H.4}{Information Systems Applications}{Miscellaneous} %A category including the fourth, optional field follows... \category{D.2.8}{Software Engineering}{Metrics}[complexity measures, performance measures] \terms{Theory} \keywords{ACM proceedings, \LaTeX, text tagging} % NOT required for Proceedings \section{Introduction} The \textit{proceedings} are the records of a conference. ACM seeks to give these conference by-products a uniform, high-quality appearance. To do this, ACM has some rigid requirements for the format of the proceedings documents: there is a specified format (balanced double columns), a specified set of fonts (Arial or Helvetica and Times Roman) in certain specified sizes (for instance, 9 point for body copy), a specified live area (18 $\times$ 23.5 cm [7" $\times$ 9.25"]) centered on the page, specified size of margins (1.9 cm [0.75"]) top, (2.54 cm [1"]) bottom and (1.9 cm [.75"]) left and right; specified column width (8.45 cm [3.33"]) and gutter size (.83 cm [.33"]). The good news is, with only a handful of manual settings\footnote{Two of these, the {\texttt{\char'134 numberofauthors}} and {\texttt{\char'134 alignauthor}} commands, you have already used; another, {\texttt{\char'134 balancecolumns}}, will be used in your very last run of \LaTeX\ to ensure balanced column heights on the last page.}, the \LaTeX\ document class file handles all of this for you. The remainder of this document is concerned with showing, in the context of an ``actual'' document, the \LaTeX\ commands specifically available for denoting the structure of a proceedings paper, rather than with giving rigorous descriptions or explanations of such commands. \section{The {\secit Body} of The Paper} Typically, the body of a paper is organized into a hierarchical structure, with numbered or unnumbered headings for sections, subsections, sub-subsections, and even smaller sections. The command \texttt{{\char'134}section} that precedes this paragraph is part of such a hierarchy.\footnote{This is the second footnote. It starts a series of three footnotes that add nothing informational, but just give an idea of how footnotes work and look. It is a wordy one, just so you see how a longish one plays out.} \LaTeX\ handles the numbering and placement of these headings for you, when you use the appropriate heading commands around the titles of the headings. If you want a sub-subsection or smaller part to be unnumbered in your output, simply append an asterisk to the command name. Examples of both numbered and unnumbered headings will appear throughout the balance of this sample document. Because the entire article is contained in the \textbf{document} environment, you can indicate the start of a new paragraph with a blank line in your input file; that is why this sentence forms a separate paragraph. \subsection{Type Changes and {\subsecit Special} Characters} We have already seen several typeface changes in this sample. You can indicate italicized words or phrases in your text with the command \texttt{{\char'134}textit}; emboldening with the command \texttt{{\char'134}textbf} and typewriter-style (for instance, for computer code) with \texttt{{\char'134}texttt}. But remember, you do not have to indicate typestyle changes when such changes are part of the \textit{structural} elements of your article; for instance, the heading of this subsection will be in a sans serif\footnote{A third footnote, here. Let's make this a rather short one to see how it looks.} typeface, but that is handled by the document class file. Take care with the use of\footnote{A fourth, and last, footnote.} the curly braces in typeface changes; they mark the beginning and end of the text that is to be in the different typeface. You can use whatever symbols, accented characters, or non-English characters you need anywhere in your document; you can find a complete list of what is available in the \textit{\LaTeX\ User's Guide}\cite{Lamport:LaTeX}. \subsection{Math Equations} You may want to display math equations in three distinct styles: inline, numbered or non-numbered display. Each of the three are discussed in the next sections. \subsubsection{Inline (In-text) Equations} A formula that appears in the running text is called an inline or in-text formula. It is produced by the \textbf{math} environment, which can be invoked with the usual \texttt{{\char'134}begin. . .{\char'134}end} construction or with the short form \texttt{\$. . .\$}. You can use any of the symbols and structures, from $\alpha$ to $\omega$, available in \LaTeX\cite{Lamport:LaTeX}; this section will simply show a few examples of in-text equations in context. Notice how this equation: \begin{math}\lim_{n\rightarrow \infty}x=0\end{math}, set here in in-line math style, looks slightly different when set in display style. (See next section). \subsubsection{Display Equations} A numbered display equation -- one set off by vertical space from the text and centered horizontally -- is produced by the \textbf{equation} environment. An unnumbered display equation is produced by the \textbf{displaymath} environment. Again, in either environment, you can use any of the symbols and structures available in \LaTeX; this section will just give a couple of examples of display equations in context. First, consider the equation, shown as an inline equation above: \begin{equation}\lim_{n\rightarrow \infty}x=0\end{equation} Notice how it is formatted somewhat differently in the \textbf{displaymath} environment. Now, we'll enter an unnumbered equation: \begin{displaymath}\sum_{i=0}^{\infty} x + 1\end{displaymath} and follow it with another numbered equation: \begin{equation}\sum_{i=0}^{\infty}x_i=\int_{0}^{\pi+2} f\end{equation} just to demonstrate \LaTeX's able handling of numbering. \subsection{Citations} Citations to articles \cite{bowman:reasoning, clark:pct, braams:babel, herlihy:methodology}, conference proceedings \cite{clark:pct} or books \cite{salas:calculus, Lamport:LaTeX} listed in the Bibliography section of your article will occur throughout the text of your article. You should use BibTeX to automatically produce this bibliography; you simply need to insert one of several citation commands with a key of the item cited in the proper location in the \texttt{.tex} file \cite{Lamport:LaTeX}. The key is a short reference you invent to uniquely identify each work; in this sample document, the key is the first author's surname and a word from the title. This identifying key is included with each item in the \texttt{.bib} file for your article. The details of the construction of the \texttt{.bib} file are beyond the scope of this sample document, but more information can be found in the \textit{Author's Guide}, and exhaustive details in the \textit{\LaTeX\ User's Guide}\cite{Lamport:LaTeX}. This article shows only the plainest form of the citation command, using \texttt{{\char'134}cite}. This is what is stipulated in the SIGS style specifications. No other citation format is endorsed. \subsection{Tables} Because tables cannot be split across pages, the best placement for them is typically the top of the page nearest their initial cite. To ensure this proper ``floating'' placement of tables, use the environment \textbf{table} to enclose the table's contents and the table caption. The contents of the table itself must go in the \textbf{tabular} environment, to be aligned properly in rows and columns, with the desired horizontal and vertical rules. Again, detailed instructions on \textbf{tabular} material is found in the \textit{\LaTeX\ User's Guide}. Immediately following this sentence is the point at which Table 1 is included in the input file; compare the placement of the table here with the table in the printed dvi output of this document. \begin{table} \centering \caption{Frequency of Special Characters} \begin{tabular}{|c|c|l|} \hline Non-English or Math&Frequency&Comments\\ \hline \O & 1 in 1,000& For Swedish names\\ \hline $\pi$ & 1 in 5& Common in math\\ \hline \$ & 4 in 5 & Used in business\\ \hline $\Psi^2_1$ & 1 in 40,000& Unexplained usage\\ \hline\end{tabular} \end{table} To set a wider table, which takes up the whole width of the page's live area, use the environment \textbf{table*} to enclose the table's contents and the table caption. As with a single-column table, this wide table will ``float" to a location deemed more desirable. Immediately following this sentence is the point at which Table 2 is included in the input file; again, it is instructive to compare the placement of the table here with the table in the printed dvi output of this document. \begin{table*} \centering \caption{Some Typical Commands} \begin{tabular}{|c|c|l|} \hline Command&A Number&Comments\\ \hline \texttt{{\char'134}alignauthor} & 100& Author alignment\\ \hline \texttt{{\char'134}numberofauthors}& 200& Author enumeration\\ \hline \texttt{{\char'134}table}& 300 & For tables\\ \hline \texttt{{\char'134}table*}& 400& For wider tables\\ \hline\end{tabular} \end{table*} % end the environment with {table*}, NOTE not {table}! \subsection{Figures} Like tables, figures cannot be split across pages; the best placement for them is typically the top or the bottom of the page nearest their initial cite. To ensure this proper ``floating'' placement of figures, use the environment \textbf{figure} to enclose the figure and its caption. This sample document contains examples of \textbf{.eps} and \textbf{.ps} files to be displayable with \LaTeX. More details on each of these is found in the \textit{Author's Guide}. \begin{figure} \centering \epsfig{file=fly.eps} \caption{A sample black and white graphic (.eps format).} \end{figure} \begin{figure} \centering \epsfig{file=fly.eps, height=1in, width=1in} \caption{A sample black and white graphic (.eps format) that has been resized with the \texttt{epsfig} command.} \end{figure} As was the case with tables, you may want a figure that spans two columns. To do this, and still to ensure proper ``floating'' placement of tables, use the environment \textbf{figure*} to enclose the figure and its caption. Note that either {\textbf{.ps}} or {\textbf{.eps}} formats are used; use the \texttt{{\char'134}epsfig} or \texttt{{\char'134}psfig} commands as appropriate for the different file types. \subsection{Theorem-like Constructs} Other common constructs that may occur in your article are the forms for logical constructs like theorems, axioms, corollaries and proofs. There are two forms, one produced by the command \texttt{{\char'134}newtheorem} and the other by the command \texttt{{\char'134}newdef}; perhaps the clearest and easiest way to distinguish them is to compare the two in the output of this sample document: This uses the \textbf{theorem} environment, created by the\linebreak\texttt{{\char'134}newtheorem} command: \newtheorem{theorem}{Theorem} \begin{theorem} Let $f$ be continuous on $[a,b]$. If $G$ is an antiderivative for $f$ on $[a,b]$, then \begin{displaymath}\int^b_af(t)dt = G(b) - G(a).\end{displaymath} \end{theorem} The other uses the \textbf{definition} environment, created by the \texttt{{\char'134}newdef} command: \newdef{definition}{Definition} \begin{definition} If $z$ is irrational, then by $e^z$ we mean the unique number which has logarithm $z$: \begin{displaymath}{\log e^z = z}\end{displaymath} \end{definition} \begin{figure} \centering \psfig{file=rosette.ps, height=1in, width=1in,} \caption{A sample black and white graphic (.ps format) that has been resized with the \texttt{psfig} command.} \end{figure} Two lists of constructs that use one of these forms is given in the \textit{Author's Guidelines}. \begin{figure*} \centering \epsfig{file=flies.eps} \caption{A sample black and white graphic (.eps format) that needs to span two columns of text.} \end{figure*} and don't forget to end the environment with {figure*}, not {figure}! There is one other similar construct environment, which is already set up for you; i.e. you must \textit{not} use a \texttt{{\char'134}newdef} command to create it: the \textbf{proof} environment. Here is a example of its use: \begin{proof} Suppose on the contrary there exists a real number $L$ such that \begin{displaymath} \lim_{x\rightarrow\infty} \frac{f(x)}{g(x)} = L. \end{displaymath} Then \begin{displaymath} l=\lim_{x\rightarrow c} f(x) = \lim_{x\rightarrow c} \left[ g{x} \cdot \frac{f(x)}{g(x)} \right ] = \lim_{x\rightarrow c} g(x) \cdot \lim_{x\rightarrow c} \frac{f(x)}{g(x)} = 0\cdot L = 0, \end{displaymath} which contradicts our assumption that $l\neq 0$. \end{proof} Complete rules about using these environments and using the two different creation commands are in the \textit{Author's Guide}; please consult it for more detailed instructions. If you need to use another construct, not listed therein, which you want to have the same formatting as the Theorem or the Definition\cite{salas:calculus} shown above, use the \texttt{{\char'134}newtheorem} or the \texttt{{\char'134}newdef} command, respectively, to create it. \subsection*{A {\secit Caveat} for the \TeX\ Expert} Because you have just been given permission to use the \texttt{{\char'134}newdef} command to create a new form, you might think you can use \TeX's \texttt{{\char'134}def} to create a new command: \textit{Please refrain from doing this!} Remember that your \LaTeX\ source code is primarily intended to create camera-ready copy, but may be converted to other forms -- e.g. HTML. If you inadvertently omit some or all of the \texttt{{\char'134}def}s recompilation will be, to say the least, problematic. \section{Conclusions} This paragraph will end the body of this sample document. Remember that you might still have Acknowledgments or Appendices; brief samples of these follow. There is still the Bibliography to deal with; and we will make a disclaimer about that here: with the exception of the reference to the \LaTeX\ book, the citations in this paper are to articles which have nothing to do with the present subject and are used as examples only. %\end{document} % This is where a 'short' article might terminate %ACKNOWLEDGMENTS are optional \section{Acknowledgments} This section is optional; it is a location for you to acknowledge grants, funding, editing assistance and what have you. In the present case, for example, the authors would like to thank Gerald Murray of ACM for his help in codifying this \textit{Author's Guide} and the \textbf{.cls} and \textbf{.tex} files that it describes. % % The following two commands are all you need in the % initial runs of your .tex file to % produce the bibliography for the citations in your paper. \bibliographystyle{abbrv} \bibliography{sigproc} % sigproc.bib is the name of the Bibliography in this case % You must have a proper ".bib" file % and remember to run: % latex bibtex latex latex % to resolve all references % % ACM needs 'a single self-contained file'! % %APPENDICES are optional %\balancecolumns \appendix %Appendix A \section{Headings in Appendices} The rules about hierarchical headings discussed above for the body of the article are different in the appendices. In the \textbf{appendix} environment, the command \textbf{section} is used to indicate the start of each Appendix, with alphabetic order designation (i.e. the first is A, the second B, etc.) and a title (if you include one). So, if you need hierarchical structure \textit{within} an Appendix, start with \textbf{subsection} as the highest level. Here is an outline of the body of this document in Appendix-appropriate form: \subsection{Introduction} \subsection{The Body of the Paper} \subsubsection{Type Changes and Special Characters} \subsubsection{Math Equations} \paragraph{Inline (In-text) Equations} \paragraph{Display Equations} \subsubsection{Citations} \subsubsection{Tables} \subsubsection{Figures} \subsubsection{Theorem-like Constructs} \subsubsection*{A Caveat for the \TeX\ Expert} \subsection{Conclusions} \subsection{Acknowledgments} \subsection{Additional Authors} This section is inserted by \LaTeX; you do not insert it. You just add the names and information in the \texttt{{\char'134}additionalauthors} command at the start of the document. \subsection{References} Generated by bibtex from your ~.bib file. Run latex, then bibtex, then latex twice (to resolve references) to create the ~.bbl file. Insert that ~.bbl file into the .tex source file and comment out the command \texttt{{\char'134}thebibliography}. % This next section command marks the start of % Appendix B, and does not continue the present hierarchy \section{More Help for the Hardy} The acm\_proc\_article-sp document class file itself is chock-full of succinct and helpful comments. If you consider yourself a moderately experienced to expert user of \LaTeX, you may find reading it useful but please remember not to change it. \balancecolumns % That's all folks! \end{document}